RIGHT OF PROSECUTORS ADOPTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PROSECUTORS ON THE TWENTY THIRD DAY OF APRIL 1999 Foreword The International Association of Prosecutors was established in June 1995 at the United Nations offices in Vienna and was formally inaugurated in September 1996 at its first General Meeting in Budapest. In the following year in … Read more
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Proclamation on recognition and enforcement of arbitral awward…. proc no 1184/2020 to ratify 1958 new york convention pdf download free
IntroductionRestorative justice views criminal conflict as an injury or violation of the relationshipbetween victims, offenders and community members, 2 and the ‘property’ of thoseinvolved in the conflict.3It complements the criminal justice system with the aim to healthe injuries of all parties involved in criminal conflict: victim, offender and community.Instead of merely focusing on punishment, restorative … Read more
A person who owns a vehicle apprehended transporting illegal coffee is punished by a fine of Birr 50,000 and an imprisonment of three to five years under Article 15(6) of the Federal Coffee Quality Control and Marketing Proclamation. The wording of the provision and different interpretation rules indicate that the crime is a strict or/and a vicarious criminal liability offence that punishes a person without the need for proving his guilty mind or guilty act. In practice, however, it is interpreted and applied inconsistently. Where some courts apply it as the direct meaning of the provision suggests, other courts penalize an owner of a vehicle apprehended transporting illegal coffee only where he carries out the illegal act personally. Furthermore, Article 23(6) of the Oromia Coffee Quality Control and Marketing Proclamation, which is intended to facilitate the implementation of the previous provision, conveys indefinite meanings as to the criminal responsibility of a person who owns a vehicle apprehended transporting illegal coffee. Hence, it further complicates the problem. Moreover, the provisions are encroaching on the fundamental human rights and the uniform application of the basic criminal principles in the country. In view of that, this article recommends that the Federal Legislature and Caffee Oromia should reconsider the criminal responsibility of a person who owns a vehicle apprehended transporting illegal coffee and reset the liability that goes with the spirit of the FDRE Constitution and the Criminal Code.